Archive for the ‘penternakan Udang Marin’ Category

How to manage the project of Tiger prawn with successful steps.

Monday, October 25th, 2010

The procedure how to manage the project with successful steps.

  1. Pond Preparation.
  2. Stocking.
  3. Feed Management.
  4. Water Management.
  5. Harvesting.
  6. Records.

1.Pond Preparation.

Pond preparations inculde number pf activities that must be carried out before the pond is used for the fist time and before each subsequent crop. The main objectives of preparation are to provided that shrimp with a clean pond bottom and appropriate ,stable ,water quality.

a.Cleaning.

The amount and organic content of the sediment that accumulates in the pond during the production cycles depends on the culture system. This sediment must be removed or broken down to sustain production and prevent accumulates of organic materials. If the sediment is not removed from high yields ponds, production will rapidly deteriorate with each successive cycle.

b.Liming: Type of lime.

Different types of lime are used primarily ti increase the buffering capacity of the water and to increase the pH. This section covers the used of lime during pond preparation. The example of lime are agricultural lime/limestone or crushed shell (CaCo3), Dolomite ( CaMg(CO3)2, Hydrated Lime (Ca(OH)2 and Quick Lime (CaO).

c. Water Preparations.

The objective during filling,treatment of the water and fertlization is to encourage a healty plankton bloom and prevent other species entering the ponds. Once initial liming has been complated the pons should be screened through a fine mesh ( 9.5 holes /cm or 89 cm2). previously culture ponds were filled in stages but very few farms if any currently use this technique due the necessity to treat the incoming water and prevent the development of the benthic algae.

d.Preventing Other Species Entering the system.

It is essential to avoid introducing other animals with thr water . This animal may include finfish crustaceans and other invertebrates.These species will either compete for good or actually kit and eat the shrimp. In additionthey may introduce pathogens into the ponds including serious viral condation such as White Spot. There are other diseases such Cottan Shrimp which may be introduced with other species but these are a relatively small problem compared to the viral infections.

e. Plankton Culture.

A healty bloom is necessary for several reasons;

  1. It provides oxygen during day lights hours.
  2. It shades the ponds bottom and prevents the growth of the potential harmful benthic algae.
  3. It provides a darker environment which the shrimp find less stressful.
  4. It utilize the nitogenous and phosphate wastes withim the pond and
  5. It reduces fluctuation in the water temperature.

Although a plankton bloom is beneficial in all ponds,reduced water exchange systems suffer from excessive plankton bloom due to the accumulates of nutrients. In these system farmers trend to use little if any fertilizer in order to prevent excessive accumulations of plankton early in the productions cycle. In systems with fewer nutrients ,organics or inorganic fertilizer can be used to stimulate the plankton bloom in thr pond.

The numbers of aerators used in a pond has a strong influnence on the maximum yield that can be achived from the system . In high yield ponds of up 1 hectare,4 to 8 aerators should be installed prior to stocking. To achive maximum water movement, these are usually placed in the comers approximately 3 to 5 meters from the ponds wall. The type of aerators required depends on the depth of the ponds and the system culture. In lower yields ponds less than 1.2 meter deep 1 horsepower paddle wheel aerators can be used.

Ternakan Udang Harimau

Sunday, February 7th, 2010
Ternakan udang di Malaysia telah bermula di dalam tahun 30-an dengan menggunakan cara tradisional iaitu dengan memerangkap benih udang di dalam kolam yang dibina di persisiran pantai yang mempunyai julat pasang surut yang bersesuaian serta bekalan benih udang semula jadi yang banyak.Industri ternakan udang laut khasnya udang harimau di negara ini telah berkembang dalam tahun 1980-an. Udang laut ini, kini telah menjadi hasil ternakan akuakultur yang penting dalam menyumbang nilai pendaratan akuakultur. Terdapat lebih daripada 10 spesies udang laut yang diternak secara komersial di dalam kolam diseluruh dunia tetapi udang harimau (Panaeus monodon) adalah salah satu dari spesies yang paling popular.

 

 

Udang harimau diternak di negara-negara Asia yang beriklim tropika dan mewakili 60%–70% daripada jumlah pengeluaran udang ternakan diseluruh dunia, meningkat dari 52% pada tahun 1998. Udang P. Vannamei atau Pacific White menyumbang 24%. Penaeus monodon atau Black Tiger dan P. orientalis atau White Faisho merupakan ternakan utama Asia manakala P. Vannamei atau Pacific White Shrimp di Amerika Latin. Pada keseluruhannya, udang harimau mewakili hampir 20% dari jumlah pengeluaran dunia.
Udang harimau merupakan spesies udang laut utama diternak oleh kebanyakan penternak udang di Malaysia. Ianya memainkan peranan penting dalam ekonomi industri akuakultur negara ini. Walaupun begitu Malaysia bukanlah pengeluar utama, kerana keluasan kolam ternakan udang harimau hanyalah sekitar 6,000 hektar. Sebagai perbandingan, Thailand mempunyai 80,000 hektar kolam udang, 40,000 hektar di Indonesia dan 80,000 hektar di India. Walau bagaimanapun, purata pengeluaran (tan metrik per hektar) di Malaysia adalah tinggi, selepas Taiwan dan Thailand. Ini menunjukkan bahawa teknologi ternakan udang di Malaysia telah maju dan setanding dengan negaranegara tersebut.
Di Malaysia, ternakan udang harimau telah menjadi satu aktiviti ekonomi yang penting sejak kejayaan mengeluarkan benih secara besar-besaran dan penggunaan teknologi ternakan yang moden. Majoriti ternakan udang atau 70% udang terhasil di kawasan timur. Dari awal 1980-an dan pertengahan 1990-an, pengeluaran udang ternakan telah meningkat sebanyak tujuh kali ganda.
Dalam tahun 2000, sebanyak lebih kurang 12,000 MT udang akuakultur (>95% udang harimau) bernilai RM400 juta telah dikeluarkan daripada 6,000 ha. Kawasan kolam air payau yang melibatkan lebih kurang 950 penternak. Pengeluaran daripada ternakan udang akuakultur mewakili cuma 10% daripada 111,900 MT daripada udang tangkapan.
Perusahaan udang bagi pelbagai spesies akan terus digalakkan di mana dianggarkan sebanyak 150,000 tan metrik udang bernilai RM2.7 bilion mampu dihasilkan pada tahun 2010 (Jabatan Perikanan).