The procedure how to manage the project with successful steps.
- Pond Preparation.
- Feed Management.
- Water Management.
Pond preparations inculde number pf activities that must be carried out before the pond is used for the fist time and before each subsequent crop. The main objectives of preparation are to provided that shrimp with a clean pond bottom and appropriate ,stable ,water quality.
The amount and organic content of the sediment that accumulates in the pond during the production cycles depends on the culture system. This sediment must be removed or broken down to sustain production and prevent accumulates of organic materials. If the sediment is not removed from high yields ponds, production will rapidly deteriorate with each successive cycle.
b.Liming: Type of lime.
Different types of lime are used primarily ti increase the buffering capacity of the water and to increase the pH. This section covers the used of lime during pond preparation. The example of lime are agricultural lime/limestone or crushed shell (CaCo3), Dolomite ( CaMg(CO3)2, Hydrated Lime (Ca(OH)2 and Quick Lime (CaO).
c. Water Preparations.
The objective during filling,treatment of the water and fertlization is to encourage a healty plankton bloom and prevent other species entering the ponds. Once initial liming has been complated the pons should be screened through a fine mesh ( 9.5 holes /cm or 89 cm2). previously culture ponds were filled in stages but very few farms if any currently use this technique due the necessity to treat the incoming water and prevent the development of the benthic algae.
d.Preventing Other Species Entering the system.
It is essential to avoid introducing other animals with thr water . This animal may include finfish crustaceans and other invertebrates.These species will either compete for good or actually kit and eat the shrimp. In additionthey may introduce pathogens into the ponds including serious viral condation such as White Spot. There are other diseases such Cottan Shrimp which may be introduced with other species but these are a relatively small problem compared to the viral infections.
e. Plankton Culture.
A healty bloom is necessary for several reasons;
- It provides oxygen during day lights hours.
- It shades the ponds bottom and prevents the growth of the potential harmful benthic algae.
- It provides a darker environment which the shrimp find less stressful.
- It utilize the nitogenous and phosphate wastes withim the pond and
- It reduces fluctuation in the water temperature.
Although a plankton bloom is beneficial in all ponds,reduced water exchange systems suffer from excessive plankton bloom due to the accumulates of nutrients. In these system farmers trend to use little if any fertilizer in order to prevent excessive accumulations of plankton early in the productions cycle. In systems with fewer nutrients ,organics or inorganic fertilizer can be used to stimulate the plankton bloom in thr pond.
The numbers of aerators used in a pond has a strong influnence on the maximum yield that can be achived from the system . In high yield ponds of up 1 hectare,4 to 8 aerators should be installed prior to stocking. To achive maximum water movement, these are usually placed in the comers approximately 3 to 5 meters from the ponds wall. The type of aerators required depends on the depth of the ponds and the system culture. In lower yields ponds less than 1.2 meter deep 1 horsepower paddle wheel aerators can be used.